What is “Scientists in Synagogues?”
Scientists in Synagogues is a grass-roots program to offer Jews opportunities to explore the most interesting and pressing questions surrounding Judaism and science. Its aim is to share how some of the most thoughtful Jewish scientists integrate their Judaism and their scientific work so that they can be role models and ambassadors for productive conversations surrounding Judaism and science.
This project is organized by Sinai and Synapses (which is incubated at Clal – The National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership) in collaboration with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Dialogue on Science, Ethics and Religion (DoSER), and funded by the John Templeton Foundation, as well as other individual donors.
How did it arise? What are its goals?
It is rarely a challenge to get Jews to embrace science. However, it is often much harder to get Jews excited about Judaism. Indeed, a common refrain in liberal Jewish circles is, “I don’t believe in God. I believe in science and in nature.” And in the national survey fielded by Rice University and AAAS as part of the “Perceptions Project,” data showed just how prevalent that perspective is.
When the Perceptions Project asked people how they perceived the relationship between science and religion, several potential responses were offered. One was “in collaboration,” one was “independent,” and two were “in conflict” — one “on the side of religion” and the other “on the side of science.”
About 25% of the American populace chose one of the two conflict options, which, interestingly, was the same percentage as the Jewish population. But while most of the Christians who saw religion and science in opposition viewed themselves as on the side of religion, those Jews who saw science and religion in conflict came down on the side of science — and by a huge margin. For the “conflicted Christians,” three out of four opted for religion, and one out of four chose science. But for the 25% of conflicted Jews, 15 out of 16 saw themselves on the side of science, and therefore, anti-religion.
This finding clearly implies that it’s often less of a challenge to get Jews to embrace science than it is to get them to embrace Judaism. Perhaps because Judaism has long embraced questioning and challenging authority, or perhaps because theology is rarely emphasized in the more liberal branches of Judaism, many Jews erroneously think that if they accept science, then they need to reject their Judaism. Thus one goal of Scientists in Synagogues will be to show that science and Judaism need not be in conflict, and that Jews do not need to reject their Judaism in order to celebrate science.
Yet there is an even more important goal of Scientists in Synagogues, and that comes from a slightly more subtle finding from the Perceptions Project. For the 75% of the populace who did not see science and religion in conflict, respondents were allowed to choose either “in collaboration” or “independent.” Jews were lower than any other religious group in viewing religion and science as “collaborative,” meaning that many Jews did not see science and religion as supporting each other. Instead, Jews were higher than any other group in viewing religion and science as “independent.”
Yet it is challenging, and often unproductive and unhealthy, to consciously separate different parts of one’s sense of self. Rather than bifurcating identity, it is more constructive to explore how people can combine disparate parts of themselves at the same time.
This then presents a great opportunity for both scientists and the Jewish community to rethink the relationship between Judaism and science. Scientists in Synagogues will move people towards a more integrated perspective, both for their own individual sense of self and for the larger conversation surrounding Judaism and science.
What impact has it had?
The first round of Scientists in Synagogues was in 2016-2017, and in the 18 months of programming, over 5000 people attended programs, classes or lectures. 96% of attendees called the programming “good” or “excellent,” and 90% said they wanted more. Several congregations saw over twice as many people as usual coming to learn, and these were a few of the comments from rabbis, scientists and educators:
“Even my most popular adult ed programs in the past haven’t broken 20 people in class. We’ve had 40 people at the last two programs, and not all exactly the same people, so we’ve probably involved closer to 50 in these past two weeks. Three people came up to me and asked if we might find a way to continue the series into next year with a monthly ‘Scientists in Synagogues Salon’ where different congregants could take a topic to present a short thought-piece on, that leads into conversation.”
“The Havdalah service was lovely, spirited, and very participatory. The Mad Science presentation was outstanding; the kids were solidly engaged and I think the timing worked perfectly. Proof: even the slightly late pizza wasn’t a problem – the audience was so into the show!”
“I usually have to pull teeth to get people involved. Here, three different people asked how I could be involved. And so many people have come and been so engaged, we are now rethinking how we do adult education.”
What are we looking for?
We are looking for communities that have members who are top-notch scientists. They can be Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, Reconstructionist, unaffiliated, or independent, and the scientists can be professors, researchers, bench scientists, science educators, or even science journalists, but the most crucial piece is that these scientists need to have a willingness and a desire to explore how their scientific work can integrate with their Jewish life.
We are also defining “synagogue” very broadly for this initiative, and will entertain applications from independent minyanim, start-up congregations, or other forms of Jewish communities where there are already relationships among stake-holders. If you would not call yourself a “synagogue” and would like to apply, please contact us to discuss further.
We are also looking for a diverse group of scientists, both in terms of their area of expertise, as well as a good mix of both male and female scientists.
What are the expectations of the synagogue?
- To attend a workshop (fully subsidized) on June 27, 2018 at Clal – The National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership in New York City for the rabbi (or other senior professional) and one scientist
- To run at least two programs in their community at some point between July 2018 and December 2019
- To create written blogposts and/or videos to help personalize the relationship between Judaism and science
- To provide qualitative and quantitative data throughout this process, such as interviews, attendance sheets and stories, which will help guide future programming and a potential expansion of this program
What will the synagogues receive?
The synagogues that are selected for Scientists in Synagogues will receive two main benefits.
First, they will receive up to $3600 for use between July 2018 and December 2019 for food, publicity, honoraria or other expenses as they see fit.
Second, they will receive an opportunity for mentorship and connection from both the Jewish world through Sinai and Synapses and the scientific world through the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
- Professor Noah Efron, faculty member on the Graduate Program in Science, Technology and Society at Bar Ilan University in Israel
- Rabbi Bradley Artson, Dean’s Chair at the Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies and author of Renewing the Process of Creation: A Jewish Integration of Science and Spirit;
- Dr. Jennifer Wiseman, Director of the AAAS Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER)
- Professor Michael Zimmerman, founder of The Clergy Letter Project and Evolution Weekend
What are potential programs synagogues might run?
Synagogues are expected to run a minimum of two programs between July 2018 and December 2019. These programs for the synagogues can take a variety of forms, and can be run through whatever methodology is most appropriate for that community.
Previous programs have involved Dr. Roald Hoffmann, recipient of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Dr. Sylvester James Gates, John S. Toll Professor of Physics and Director of the Center for String and Particle Theory at the University of Maryland at College Park, Dr. Jennifer Wiseman, Director of the AAAS Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER), and Dr. Jeremy England, Associate Professor of Physics at MIT. See some of the past events and the content that came out of them.
The ideas below are simply designed to spark creativity.
Teachings and dialogue during Shabbat services
By inviting a scientist to speak at Shabbat services or having the rabbi be in conversation with a scientist, the congregation will be able to discover integrated lessons from both Judaism and science.
Adult education and family education programs
With options that range from a one-time major presentation in a large synagogue to a semester-long course, adult education programs allow for relationship-building and deep explorations. Additionally, family education programs are another option, where parents and children can have the opportunity to explore together the relationship between Judaism and science.
By creating curricula, offering “guest speakers” in a classroom, and providing resources to students on their way to becoming bar or bat mitzvah, the next generation will be able to see how science and Judaism can come together.
What are some potential topics and themes?
As Scientists in Synagogues is designed to be grass-roots, many of the topics will arise from the interests and expertise from the specific scientists and clergy. To generate thoughts and ideas, below are some potential themes or topics that may spark significant interest:
- Spirituality and Health: What is the relationship between a sense of spirituality and medical health? What are we truly praying for when we “pray for health”? What is the relationship between “healing” and “curing”?
- Science of Virtue: Can we measure virtues? Are virtues associated with human flourishing? How can we ground Jewish teachings on subjects like gratitude, self-control, generosity, or forgiveness in the latest science?
- Genesis and the Big Bang / Evolution: How do we read the Bible in light of Big Bang cosmology and the theory of natural selection?
- Our sense of self: How do we tell the story of “who we are” based on the latest scientific findings? What is the connection among mind, brain and soul? As Judaism emphasizes “remembering” (such as the Exodus from Egypt, or Shabbat, or the Holocaust), what does science say about how memory relates to identity?
- Genetics: How has the increase in genetic knowledge changed our understanding of humanity? What’s the relationship between nature and nurture? How do new scientific findings change the idea of “b’tselem Elohim,” being created in God’s image?
- Technology: How is technology changing the way we interact with others and our world? What are the limits and opportunities that technology creates for our relationships? How do we understand Shabbat in our 24/7 ever-connected world?
Please note: While all possible topics about Judaism and science will be considered, we are looking for particularly unique proposals. If you are planning to focus on topics such as environmental science, bio-ethics or abortion (many of which have been covered in other venues and forms), please reach out to us to discuss this further.
What is the timeline?
The deadline for applications is March 15, 2018. Finalists will be notified by March 26, 2018, and will then be asked to submit a budget and tentative program timeline. They will then have a one-hour interview by Zoom, and all applicants will be notified by April 23rd, 2018. All congregations are expected to bring one rabbi (or other senior professional) and one scientist for a workshop in New York City on June 27, 2018.
The proposals will be evaluated by an independent committee. Selections will be based on the creativity of project content, organizational capacity, level of congregational engagement, and commitment to sustainability, amongst others.
What will the ultimate impact be?
Ultimately, Scientists in Synagogues will use the power of relationships and personal stories to highlight people who effectively bring their science and Judaism together in their own personal lives. By doing so, it will increase the number of people who see science and Judaism as collaborative, and will examine not just religious questions, and not just scientific questions, but human questions.
If you have other questions, please contact us.